In phytodepuration plants, incoming water is led into tanks through some filters that hold coarse-grained materials, if there are any.
Then, the liquid enter the filtering area, where high level oxygen areas, produced by plants roots, alternate with anaerobic areas, that allow the growth of bacteria accomplishing the disposal of harmful substances.
At the end of the process purified water goes through a little inspection well that allows sampling.
The process, in compliance with the current legislation (D.L. n. 152/2006), has minimal costruction costs, especially in comparison with traditional systems, and has a by far smaller ecological impact.
Indeed, in addition to having a green area instead of an artificial structure, electricity usage is reduced and the need of electromechanical devices is minimal, if not absent.
Purified water, deprived of any pathogens during the process, can also be used in agriculture.
Located in Olona Valley, the park called Parco dell'Acqua in Gorla Maggiore (a Lombardy town in the province of Varese) is an example of phytopurification plant used in order to purify the town’s waste water.
The plant is situated in an environmental context with educational aims and to the purpose of improving the nearby area, and is associated with reforestation initiatives in order to regenerate the territory.
This is only one of the many initiatives which could be adapted in the near future on the Italian territory, so as to approach a sustainability policy.